Wishes and curses

You may know that the tradition of tossing pennies into wells or fountains to make a wish goes back to ancient times when offerings were thrown into bodies of water to gain favors from the gods (if you didn’t before, you do now). But did you know that people also threw curses into sacred waters for the gods to enact? These curse scrolls or tablets were written asking for justice or revenge, and they give us a fantastic glimpse into the everyday life – and the gossip – of people who lived two thousand years ago.

The scrolls in these pictures are from the Roman baths in Bath, England. Sadly, my camera isn’t high resolution enough to capture the very faded writing on the lead tablets, but I did take a shot of the transcriptions as well (most of them are in Latin). The “tablets” themselves are pretty small, just a couple of inches across.

Faded and cracked thin, lead plates.
Latin transcriptions of the curse tablets above with an explanation that they are about the theft of a hooded cloak, the theft of a bracelet, and two instances of the theft of six silver coins.

Some of the translations say things like, “I have given to the goddess Sulis the six silver coins which I have lost. It is for the goddess to exact from the names written below: Senicianus and Saturninus and Anniola.” An interesting take on revenge, telling the goddess that she can have the coins if she gets them back from the thieves. Another is more specific, saying, “Docimedis has lost two gloves and asks that the thief responsible should lose their minds and eyes in the goddess’s temple.” I guess he really liked those gloves, though it is a pretty infuriating feeling to have something stolen.

In some cases, people would write the curse backward, maybe to make it stronger or easier to read on the “other side,” and sometimes they added magical symbols or shoved nails through the scrolls to reinforce their curse.

One of the scrolls is in what scholars believe to be the only (known) written example of ancient British-Celtic.

A small fragment of a lead tablet.

There’s no translation of this tablet because British Celtic is an as-yet-untranslated language. The words read, “Adixoui Deuina Deieda Andagin Uindiorix cuamenai,” though the scroll and the message are incomplete. There are a couple of suggestions about what this might mean, but if you can figure it out, let us know (and the rest of the world)!

To end on a cheerful note, archeologists have also fished a lot of beautiful items out of ancient wells and ponds, and I would love a modern replica of this ancient Celtic brooch found at Bath.

A circular brooch with a long pin for holding a clock or tunic, with swirling designs on each end of the circle.

Happy St. Patrick’s Day!

I’m back from a long hiatus from blogging with some fun history facts for the day. Did you know St. Patrick was actually Welsh? He was kidnapped by pirates and taken to Ireland (“kidnapped by pirates is good!” 😉 ). According to legend, he was taken from Cor Tewdws, or the College of Theodosius, in modern Llantwit Major, Wales (on the south coast–you can see Devon across the channel on a clear day), the first college in Great Britain, and later a monastery as well. It was sacked by the Irish, The Vikings, and the possibly the Normans, but it survived until Henry the Eighth dissolved the monasteries. The church of St. Illtyd was probably built on the site of the ruins, and is still standing today. The pictures below show the ancient Celtic crosses discovered on the church grounds, and the beach where the raiders would have to have landed (the shores are very rocky, and it’s quite a hike up to the monastery site–those pirates must have been in great shape!).

St. Patrick is an interesting historical figure because, despite living in about 400 A.D., we still have some of his writings, and very few writings of any kind survived from that time. Also, his story is pretty remarkable. He was kidnapped and forced into slavery, then escaped, but instead of hating his captors, he chose to return and teach them the faith he loved. If the Irish saved civilization, it was a Welshman who showed them the way. 🙂

St. Illtyd’s Church, Llantwit Major, probable site of the ancient College of Theodosius, or Cor Tewdws

The beach below Llantwit Major

Portion of an ancient Celtic cross found at St. Illtyd’s Church

Ancient Celtic cross found at St. Illtyd’s church